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Clear, slightly yellowish liquid that surrounds the unborn baby (fetus) during pregnancy. It is contained in the amniotic sac. 
During pregnancy, the amniotic sac is formed within the uterus and encloses the fetus. This sac bursts normally during the birthing process, releasing the amniotic fluid. A popular term for the amniotic sac with the amniotic fluid is the bag of waters. 
Absence of ovulation


A special place for women to give birth. They have all the required equipment for birthing but are specially designed for a woman, her partner, and family. Birth centers may be free standing (separate from a hospital) or located within a hospital.


An approach to the development of sustainable skills, organizational structures, resources and commitment to health improvement in health and other sectors, to prolong and multiply health gains many times over.
A thimble-shaped latex cup that is inserted into the vagina before sex to block sperm from entering the cervix, and thereby preventing pregnancy.
The lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb). The cervix forms a canal that opens into the vagina, which leads to the outside of the body.
A procedure where the baby is delivered through an abdominal incision or surgery. Also called cesarean delivery or cesarean birth.
If necessary this test is performed between 10 and 12 weeks of pregnancy and can indicate the same chromosomal abnormalities and genetic disorders as amniocentesis can. It also can detect the baby’s sex and risk of spina bifida.
A common sexually transmitted disease (STD). Most people have no symptoms, but chlamydia can cause serious damage a women’s reproductive organs. When a woman does have symptoms, they may include thin vaginal discharge and other symptoms similar to gonorrhea like burning when urinating. Long-term irritation may cause lower abdominal pain, inflammation of the pelvic organs, and pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).
An external female sex organ located near the top of the inner labia of the vagina. The clitoris is very sensitive to the touch, and for most women, it is a center of sexual pleasure.
To force someone to do something that they do not want to do.
A thick, yellowish fluid secreted from breast during pregnancy, and the first few days after childbirth before the onset of mature breast milk. Also called first milk, it provides nutrients and protection against infectious diseases.
A procedure that uses a special microscope (called a colposcope) to look into the vagina and to look very closely at the cervix for signs of disease.
Decide whether or not, and when to have children - Pursue a satisfying safe and pleasurable sexual life.
Also known as birth control or family planning are ways to prevent pregnancy. Contraception types include Long Active Reversible Contraception (LARC) such as rod implant and intrauterine device (IUD); oral contraceptive pills, emergency contraceptive (also known as 'the morning after pill'), vaginal rings, contraceptive injection, male condoms, female condoms, and diaphragms.



Dental Dam A square, thin piece of latex that can be placed over the anus or the vagina before oral sex.
Diaphragm Birth control device made of a thin flexible disk, usually made of rubber, that is designed to cover the cervix to prevent the entry of sperm during sexual intercourse.


A pregnancy that is not in the uterus. It happens when a fertilized egg settles and grows in a place other than the inner lining of the uterus. Most happen in the fallopian tube, but can happen in the ovary, cervix, or abdominal cavity.
A condition in which tissue that normally lines the uterus grows in other areas of the body, usually inside the abdominal cavity, but acts as if it were inside the uterus. Bloodshed monthly from the misplaced tissue has no place to go, and tissues surrounding the area of endometriosis may become inflamed or swollen. This can produce scar tissue. Symptoms include painful menstrual cramps that can be felt in the abdomen or lower back, or pain during or after sexual activity, irregular bleeding, and infertility.
This is a procedure where an incision is made in the perineum (area between the vagina and the anus) to make the vaginal opening larger in order to prevent the area from tearing during delivery.
Inability to achieve and keep the penis erect.



The union of a sperm cell and an ovum or egg.
A barrier form of birth control that is worn by the woman inside her vagina. It is made of thin, flexible, man-made rubber. It keeps sperm from getting into her body.
A term used to describe the full range of harmful effects that can occur when a fetus is exposed to alcohol.
each month, an egg develops inside the ovary in a fluid-filled pocket called a follicle. This follicle releases the egg into the fallopian tube.
a hormone produced by the pituitary gland. In women, it helps control the menstrual cycle and the production of eggs by the ovaries.
To make someone have sex for money, against their will.



Refers to the socially constructed roles, behaviours, activities and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for men and women.
A reproductive organ, especially one of the external sex organs.
Diabetes that occurs during pregnancy.



A condition in which a couple has problems conceiving, or getting pregnant, after 1 year of regular sexual intercourse without using any birth control methods. If a woman keeps having miscarriages, it's also called infertility. Infertility can be caused by a problem with the man or the woman or both.
a small device that is placed inside a woman's uterus by a health care provider, which prevents pregnancy by changing the environment of the uterus (or womb).



A form of birth control based on a period of natural infertility that occurs for a few months after pregnancy in breastfeeding mothers whose menstrual cycle has not yet returned.
Sexual drive.
Problems with the uterine lining that can affect a woman's ability to get pregnant and have a successful pregnancy.



The transition in a woman's life when production of the hormone estrogen in her body falls permanently to very low levels, the ovaries stop producing eggs, and menstrual periods stop for good.
A recurring cycle in which the lining of the uterus thickens in preparation for pregnancy and then is shed if pregnancy does not occur.
The blood-flow from the uterus that happens about every 4 weeks in a woman.
A medicine that kills microbes such as bacteria or a virus. It is usually a gel, cream, or foam that is put into the vagina or rectum before sex to stop HIV or other sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
An unplanned loss of a pregnancy. Also called a spontaneous abortion.


Cancer of the ovary or ovaries, which are organs in the female reproductive system that make eggs and hormones. Most ovarian cancers develop from the cells that cover the outer surface of the ovary, called epithelial cells.
Health of the ovaries and eggs. It is an important factor in female fertility and decreases with age.
Part of a woman's reproductive system, the ovaries produce her eggs. Each month, through the process called ovulation, the ovaries release eggs into the fallopian tubes, where they travel to the uterus or womb. If an egg is fertilized by a man's sperm, a woman becomes pregnant and the egg grows and develops inside the uterus. If the egg is not fertilized, the egg and the lining of the uterus is shed during a woman's monthly menstrual period.
The release of a single egg from a follicle that developed in the ovary. It usually occurs regularly, around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle.
A method used by couples trying to get pregnant, in which they have intercourse just before or after ovulation.
The egg cell produced in the ovaries.



During this exam, the doctor or nurse practitioner looks for redness, swelling, discharge, or sores on the outside and inside of the vagina. A Pap test tests for cell changes on the cervix. The doctor or nurse practitioner will also put two fingers inside the vagina and press on the abdomen with the other hand to check for cysts or growths on the ovaries and uterus. STD tests may also be done.
An infection of the female reproductive organs that are above the cervix, such as the fallopian tubes and ovaries. It is the most common and serious problem caused by sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). PID can cause ectopic pregnancies, infertility, chronic pelvic pain, and other serious problems. Symptoms include fever, foul-smelling vaginal discharge, extreme pain, and vaginal bleeding.
Is the term used to describe when a woman has a growing fetus inside of her. In most cases, the fetus grows in the uterus.
A group of symptoms linked to the menstrual cycle that occurs in the week or two weeks before menstruation. The symptoms usually go away after menstruation begins and can include acne, breast swelling and tenderness, feeling tired, having trouble sleeping, upset stomach, bloating, constipation or diarrhea, headache or backache, appetite changes or food cravings, joint or muscle pain, trouble concentrating or remembering, tension, irritability, mood swings or crying spells, and anxiety or depression.
A reproductive health problem that occurs when a woman's ovaries stop working normally before she is 40. POI is not the same as early menopause. Some women with POI still get a period now and then. But ovulation problems can make getting pregnant hard for women with POI.
A female hormone produced by the ovaries. Progesterone, along with estrogen, prepares the uterus (womb) for a possible pregnancy each month and supports the fertilized egg if conception occurs. Progesterone also helps prepare the breasts for milk production and breastfeeding.



The system that allows living things to produce new individuals of the same kind.
Addresses the reproductive processes, functions, and systems at all stages of life. Reproductive health, therefore, implies that people are able to have a responsible, satisfying and safe sex life and that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide, if when and how often to do so.
The basic rights of all couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number, spacing, and timing of their children, to have the information and means to do so and to attain the highest standards of sexual and reproductive health.



How you feel about yourself — how you feel about who you are, the way you act, and how you look. When a person does not think too highly of themselves, she is said to have low self-esteem.
Refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define man and women.
The process of enabling individuals, communities, and population groups to enhance control over the determinants of health and thus increase people’s capacity to achieve optimal sexual and reproductive health over their life course
A state of physical, emotional, mental and social well-being in relation to sexuality; it is not merely the absence of disease, dysfunction or infirmity. Sexual health requires a positive and respectful approach to sexuality and sexual relationships, as well as the possibility of having pleasurable and safe sexual experiences, free of coercion, discrimination, and violence.
The application of existing human rights to sexuality and sexual health constitute sexual rights. Sexual rights protect all peoples right to fulfill and express their sexuality and enjoy sexual health, with due regard for the rights of others and within a framework of protection against discrimination.
Sexual rights include the right of individuals to The highest attainable standard of sexual health, including access to sexual and reproductive health care services - Seek, receive and impart information related to sexuality; - Sexuality education - Respect for bodily integrity - Choose their partner - Decide to be sexually active or not - Consensual sexual relations
A central aspect of being human throughout life encompasses sex, gender identities, and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. While sexuality can include all of these dimensions, not all of them are always experienced or expressed. Sexuality is influenced by the interaction of biological, psychological, social, economic, political, cultural, legal, historical, religious and spiritual factors.
Chemical jellies, foams, creams, or suppositories, inserted into the vagina prior to intercourse that kill sperm.
Not able to conceive or carry a child.
When a fetus dies during birth, or when the fetus dies during the late stages of pregnancy when it would have been otherwise expected to survive
sexually transmitted disease which may or may not have symptoms. Symptoms in the first stages can include painless sores on the genitals, anus, or mouth and enlarged lymph nodes in the area around the sore. Syphilis can be cured with antibiotics. If left untreated, syphilis can permanently damage the brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, and joints. This damage includes paralysis (not being able to move or feel a part of the body), numbness, blindness, dementia, and even death.



This is also known as the womb, it is a pear-shaped organ where the fertilized egg develops.



This is also called the birth canal, a passage connected to the uterus. It is a muscular tube that leads from the cervix to the outside of the woman's body. A man's penis goes into the woman's vagina during sexual intercourse. The opening of the vagina has folds of skin called labia that meet to form a vulva. The urethra also opens into the vulva, but it is separate from the vagina and is used for passing urine from the body.
Inflammation of the vagina, often caused by infection. Symptoms can include vaginal itching, burning, pain, and discharge.